The Summit Craters

The senses tell The Summit craters

The inside of the summit craters

If you are lucky, trained and accustomed to high altitudes and trekking, and especially if there is no ongoing eruption, you can fully enjoy the sight of the inside of the summit craters. Straight away, you notice the ever-present tall gas columns coming from the summit fumarole fields.

Internal activity

In absolute silence, even without seeing ash clouds rising from the bottom of the craters, you can distinctly see some explosions: these are simply gas bubbles exploding inside the volcanic conduit when they are about to reach the surface.

Thin air

In addition to the omnipresent odour from the fumaroles of the Etna summit area, when you breathe in the air you sense that there is very little oxygen. In reality, the quantity of oxygen in the mixture that makes up the air is the same, but the lower atmospheric pressure here causes the rarefication of the entire air mixture.

The vibrating ground

While standing, seated or placing your hands on the crater perimeter, you will feel the ground vibrate, caused by the explosions inside the volcanic conduit.

Acireale and its “timpe”

The fault system of the “Timpe” of Acireale

Summit crater activity between 2011 and 2019

The first Etnean volcanic events between Aci Castello and Aci Trezza

The Etna viewpoint

The “notches” of snow

The Jaci river

The Grand Tour in Sicily

A fauna context yet to be discovered

Torre del Filosofo: at the base of the summit craters (2950 metres)

The different names of the “Muntagna”

The senses tell The Summit craters

The Red Mountains and the destructive eruption of 1669

Etna, wine terroir of excellence

The senses tell Valle del Leone

The 1669 eruption in Catania

The continuous evolution of the Etna summit craters

The senses tell The Red Mountains

Humankind and the volcano: how should we behave? Volcanic risk

Etna: a marvellous group of microclimates and vegetation

The senses tell The Etna viewpoint

Acireale and reconstruction after the 1693 earthquake

The 2001 eruption of Mount Etna, where the approach to volcanoes changed

Etna, the living mountain

The senses tell Torre del Filosofo

The senses tell Val Calanna

Etna, an ever-changing natural laboratory

Val Calanna, the first step towards a single large volcanic structure

The senses tell Acicastello and Acitrezza

An ever-evolving volcano

Empedocles and his passion for Etna

The senses tell Acireale


The Elliptical, the first great volcano of Etna

Lachea Island and the Aci Trezza Stacks

The earthquake that changed the geography of eastern Sicily in 1693

Why did Etna form in that specific geographical position?

Valle del Leone and the Elliptical

Volcanic monitoring and eruption forecasting

The eruption of 1928 that destroyed the town of Mascali