The Summit Craters

The continuous evolution of the Etna summit craters

Without a doubt, this is the most beautiful and fascinating part of the “Muntagna”, where eruptions occur most often, especially since 2001.
This area also has particular charm because it is the only active volcano summit area in the world to have 4-5 summit craters that are clearly distinct from each other and behave independently. These characteristics have always intrigued scientists from all over the world, though they are all yet to agree on an explanation. However, the summit crater area was not always configured in this way.
foto aerea crateri sommitali Until 1911, there was only one central crater in the Etna apex area. In 1911, the north-east crater was formed. Later, inside the central crater, the Voragine (1945) and the Bocca Nuova (1968) were formed. In 1971, the south-east crater formed on the south-east flank of the central crater and remained active until 2007. Two new cones joined it, which greatly increased its size.
Today, the north-east crater is the highest point of Etna (3324 metres above sea level, measured in December 2015 by the INGV – the Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology).

The Elliptical, the first great volcano of Etna

Etna, wine terroir of excellence

The continuous evolution of the Etna summit craters

The senses tell Valle del Leone

The senses tell The Red Mountains

The senses tell Acicastello and Acitrezza

The senses tell The Summit craters

Torre del Filosofo: at the base of the summit craters (2950 metres)

The 1669 eruption in Catania

Val Calanna, the first step towards a single large volcanic structure

The senses tell Acireale

The “notches” of snow

Lachea Island and the Aci Trezza Stacks

Why did Etna form in that specific geographical position?

The earthquake that changed the geography of eastern Sicily in 1693

The Etna viewpoint

Empedocles and his passion for Etna

Volcanic monitoring and eruption forecasting

The Grand Tour in Sicily

Etna: a marvellous group of microclimates and vegetation

An ever-evolving volcano


The senses tell Val Calanna

The senses tell The Etna viewpoint

The 2001 eruption of Mount Etna, where the approach to volcanoes changed

The Red Mountains and the destructive eruption of 1669

The different names of the “Muntagna”

The fault system of the “Timpe” of Acireale

Summit crater activity between 2011 and 2019

The first Etnean volcanic events between Aci Castello and Aci Trezza

Acireale and reconstruction after the 1693 earthquake

Valle del Leone and the Elliptical

The Jaci river

The eruption of 1928 that destroyed the town of Mascali

Etna, the living mountain

Etna, an ever-changing natural laboratory

Acireale and its “timpe”

The senses tell Torre del Filosofo

Humankind and the volcano: how should we behave? Volcanic risk

A fauna context yet to be discovered