After the First Punic War, general Himilco succeeded in re-establishing Carthaginian rule over Agrigento, a period that lasted only until the Second Punic War (218-202 BC), when Roman power was consolidated in Sicily once and for all: in a short time, all the cities were once again forced to surrender and, this time, not even Syracuse could escape Roman power.
The decisive battle was won at Zama by Scipio Africanus in 202 BC, but in 210 BC Roman soldiers had already settled within the walls of Agrigento, which then fell under Roman rule. For many inhabitants of the city, aligned with the Carthaginians, it was a tragic event accompanied by great sorrow, told by touching testimonies of several historians of the time: many citizens, including the most illustrious, were frustrated and beheaded by the Roman conquerors; others were sold as slaves and the city was plundered of its ornaments and riches.
At the end of the war, Agrigentum, partially depopulated following the disastrous events, was named civitas decumana .
The Third Punic war (149-146 BC) did not directly involve Sicily, but saw the complete defeat of Carthage, culminating in the total destruction of the city and the sowing of salt on its ruins – an event never confirmed by any historical source.