In 395, Emperor Theodosius divided the empire into two parts: a Western part with Rome as its capital and an Eastern part with Constantinople as its capital. Over time, the division also affected the economy, language, art and religion. The Patriarch of Constantinople wanted to express his thoughts on certain spiritual matters at the expense of the Pope, who held absolute power over the entire Christian church. In an attempt to strengthen relations, the Council of Chalcedon was held in 451, ratifying the equal importance of the two churches. Similarly, in the centuries that followed, the separation became increasingly clear until the Eastern Schism in 1054, when the Christian church was divided into Catholic and Orthodox.