Western Latin, Eastern Byzantine and Islamic Arabic

The Norman kingdom became a melting pot of different worlds, languages and religions, not only Western Latin but also Eastern Byzantine and Islamic Arabic. The rulers succeeded in creating a dialogue between the people of the Mediterranean, based on peaceful coexistence, cooperation and the mixing of different cultures. For instance. the Zisa in Palermo contains a funerary stele from 1148, commissioned by William I’s cleric to commemorate his mother, written in four languages: Latin, Greek, Hebrew and Arabic.