The catapult

The first rudimentary yet solid catapult was built in wood. It consisted of two trunks resting on a base and fixed to a horizontal frame.
Between these was twisted a rope on which was inserted the end of a wooden arm, which could rotate from bottom to top.
The opposite end, on the other hand, held a very heavy boulder. It was thrown when the arm was freed from the tangle of the rope, bumping against a crossbeam placed between the two trunks.
At this point, the boulder was hurled at great speed and was capable of breaking down walls, smashing through gates or killing enemies.