globus cruciger  

The orb and cross, typical of the iconography of medieval art, is a Christian symbol already used by Emperor Theodosius on coins. From the Latin, globus cruciger, it is a sphere, symbolising the cosmos, with a cross at the top. Present in royal insignia, impressed on coins or in the hands of archangels and rulers, the orb and cross was also used as a frieze on royal crowns.